Differences in isolated mitochondria are insufficient to account for respiratory depression during diapause in Artemia franciscana embryos
In response to cues signifying the approach of winter, adult Artemia franciscana produce encysted embryos that enter diapause. We show that respiration rates of diapause embryos collected from the field (Great Salt Lake, Utah) are reduced up to 92% compared with postdiapause embryos when measured under conditions of normoxia and full hydration. However, mitochondria isolated from diapause embryos exhibit rates of state 3 and state 4 respiration on pyruvate that are equivalent to those from postdiapause embryos with active metabolism; a reduction in these rates (15%-27%) is measured with succinate for two of three collection years. Respiratory control ratios for diapause mitochondria are comparable to or higher than those from postdiapause embryos. The P:O flux ratios are statistically identical. Our calculations suggest that respiration of intact, postdiapause embryos is operating close to the state 3 oxygen fluxes measured for isolated mitochondria. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity is 53% lower in diapause mitochondria during one collection year; the minimal impact of this COX reduction on mitochondrial respiration appears to be due to the 31% excess COX capacity in A. franciscana mitochondria. Transmission electron micrographs of embryos reveal mitochondria that are well differentiated and structurally similar in both states. As inferred from the similar amounts of mitochondrial protein extractable, tissue contents of mitochondria in diapause and postdiapause embryos are equivalent. Thus, metabolic depression during diapause cannot be fully explained by altered properties of isolated mitochondria. Rather, mechanisms for active inhibition or substrate limitation of mitochondrial metabolism in vivo may be operative.