Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is dependent on susceptible host cells that express both CD4 and chemokine co-receptors. The co-receptor CCR5 is associated with primary infection by macrophage-tropic virus isolates, whereas CXCR4 is commonly associated with T cell- and dual- tropic viruses. Once infected, lymphocytes and macrophages may replicate HIV- 1 or harbor latent virus, depending on environmental factors and cellular activation. Immune activation is often associated with viremia, which is consistent with enhanced infection and viral replication in activated cells harboring virus. In this regard, opportunistic infections activate the immune system with the detrimental sequelae of enhanced viral replication and viremia. Under these conditions, viral expansion extends beyond T cells to tissue macrophages, many of which are co-infected with opportunistic pathogens. The opportunistic infections promote macrophage susceptibility to HIV-1 through cytokine modulation and altered chemokine co-receptors, potential targets for intervention.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Journal of Infectious Diseases
Wahl, S., Greenwell-Wild, T., Peng, G., Hale-Donze, H., & Orenstein, J. (1999). Co-infection with opportunistic pathogens promotes human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection in macrophages. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 179 (SUPPL. 3) https://doi.org/10.1086/314814