Mycobacterium avium complex promotes recruitment of monocyte hosts for HIV-1 and bacteria
In lymphoid tissues coinfected with Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and HIV-1, increased viral replication has been observed. This study investigates the role of MAC in perpetuating both infections through the recruitment of monocytes as potential new hosts for bacteria and HIV-1. Increased numbers of macrophages were present in the lymph nodes of patients with dual infection as compared with lymph nodes from HIV+ patients with no known opportunistic pathogens. In a coculture system, monocyte-derived macrophages were treated with HIV-1 or M. avium and its constituents to further define the mechanism whereby MAC infection of macrophages initiates monocyte migration. Monocyte-derived macrophages treated with bacteria or bacterial products, but not HIV-1, induced a rapid 2- to 3-fold increase in recruitment of monocytes. Pretreatment of the monocytes with pertussis toxin inhibited the migration of these cells, indicating a G protein-linked pathway is necessary for induction of chemotaxis and thus suggesting the involvement of chemokines. Analysis of chemokine mRNA and protein levels from M. avium-treated cultures revealed MAC-induced increases in the expression of IL-8, macrophage-inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α, and MIP-1β with donor-dependent changes in monocyte chemotactic protein-1. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an antioxidant, inhibited the activation of NF-κB and significantly diminished the MAC-induced chemotaxis, concurrently lowering the levels of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and MIP-1β. These data demonstrate that MAC induces macrophage production of multiple chemotactic factors via NF-κB to promote monocyte migration to sites of MAC infection. In vivo, opportunistic infection may act as a recruitment mechanism in which newly arrived monocytes serve as naive hosts for both MAC and HIV-1, thus perpetuating both infections.