Point-of-care treatment of geometrically complex midfacial critical-sized bone defects with 3D-Printed scaffolds and autologous stromal vascular fraction
Critical-sized midfacial bone defects present a unique clinical challenge due to their complex three-dimensional shapes and intimate associations with sensory organs. To address this challenge, a point-of-care treatment strategy for functional, long-term regeneration of 2 cm full-thickness segmental defects in the zygomatic arches of Yucatan minipigs is evaluated. A digital workflow is used to 3D-print anatomically precise, porous, biodegradable scaffolds from clinical-grade poly-ε-caprolactone and decellularized bone composites. The autologous stromal vascular fraction of cells (SVF) is isolated from adipose tissue extracts and infused into the scaffolds that are implanted into the zygomatic ostectomies. Bone regeneration is assessed up to 52 weeks post-operatively in acellular (AC) and SVF groups (BV/DV = 0.64 ± 0.10 and 0.65 ± 0.10 respectively). In both treated groups, bone grows from the adjacent tissues and restores the native anatomy. Significantly higher torque is required to fracture the bone-scaffold interface in the SVF (7.11 ± 2.31 N m) compared to AC groups (2.83 ± 0.23 N m). Three-dimensional microcomputed tomography analysis reveals two distinct regenerative patterns: osteoconduction along the periphery of scaffolds to form dense lamellar bone and small islands of woven bone deposits growing along the struts in the scaffold interior. Overall, this study validates the efficacy of using 3D-printed bioactive scaffolds with autologous SVF to restore geometrically complex midfacial bone defects of clinically relevant sizes while also highlighting remaining challenges to be addressed prior to clinical translation.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Singh, S., Nyberg, E. L., O'Sullivan, A. N., Farris, A., Rindone, A. N., Zhang, N., & Whitehead, E. C. (2022). Point-of-care treatment of geometrically complex midfacial critical-sized bone defects with 3D-Printed scaffolds and autologous stromal vascular fraction. Biomaterials, 282, 121392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2022.121392