Mutations affecting conformation or sequence of neutralizing epitopes identified by reactivity of viable plaques segregate from syn and ts domains of HSV-1(F) gB gene

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Three classes of HSV-1(F) mutants expressing a resistance phenotype to two highly potent-type common monoclonal antibodies, H126-5 and H233, to glycoprotein B (gB) were selected. Class 1 mutants, selected for resistance to neutralization from nonmutagenized virus stocks, expressed a gB which reacted in biotin-avidin-enhanced surface immunoassays and in immune precipitation tests with the selecting antibodies. Class 2 and 3 mutants were selected for nonreactivity in the biotin-avidin-enhanced surface immunoassay from BUdR-mutagenized, preneutralized virus stocks, but differ in that the selecting antibodies immune precipitated the gB of Class 2 but not that of Class 3. Mutants expressing a resistance phenotype to one monoclonal antibody (H126-5 or H233) invariably retained reactivity in all tests with the heterologous antibody, and recombinants resistant to both antibodies were produced by cotransfection of intact DNA of one mutant with a cloned DNA fragment from another mutant. Class 1 mutations were mapped by marker transfer to a 1734-bp DNA fragment. Class 2 and 3 mutations were mapped to a region defined by a maximum of 377 by and a minimum of 46 bp, in a biotin-avidin-enhanced surface immunoassay with a panel of DNA fragments of HSV-1(F) BamHI G carrying staggered deletions across the region encoding gB. This region does not overlap the neutralizing antibody determinant site mapped by T. C. Holland, R. M. Sandri-Goldin, L. E. Holland, S. D. Marlin, M. Levine, and J. Glorioso (1983, J. Virol. 46, 649-652) and is located 3′ to the is lesion of HSV-1(HFEM)tsB5 and 5′ to the syn3 locus of that virus. It was concluded that (i) inasmuch as the biotin-avidin-enhanced surface immunoassay does not destroy the virus contained in the plaque, it is a rapid and convenient method for both identification and selection of mutants reactive and nonreactive to specific monoclonal antibodies. (ii) gB may contain multiple domains carrying epitopic sites of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. (iii) The resistance phenotype may arise from mutations which alter the conformation or the amino acid sequence of the epitope. These mutations might be differentiable on the basis of reactivity of mutated gB with selecting monoclonal antibody in nondenaturing and denaturing environments, respectively. © 1984.

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