Title

The herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein D (gF) cytoplasmic terminus and full-length gE are not essential and do not function in a redundant manner for cytoplasmic virion envelopment and egress

Document Type

Article

Publication Date

6-1-2009

Abstract

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) acquires its final envelope by budding into cytoplasmic vesicles thought to be derived from trans-Golgi network membranes. This process is facilitated by interactions among the carboxyl termini of viral glycoproteins and tegument proteins. To directly investigate the relative importance of the carboxyl terminus of glycoprotein D (gD) in the presence or absence of gE, a recombinant virus (gDΔct) was constructed to specify a truncated gD lacking the carboxy-terminal 29 amino acids. Furthermore, two additional recombinant viruses were constructed by mutating from ATG to CTG the initiation codons of gE (gEctg) or both gE and gM (gEctg+gMctg), causing lack of expression of gE or both gE and gM, respectively. A fourth mutant virus was constructed to specify the gEctg+gDΔct mutations. The replication properties of these viruses were compared to those of a newly constructed recombinant virus unable to express UL20 due to alteration of the two initiation codons of UL20 (UL20ctgctg). All recombinant viruses were constructed by using the double-Red, site-directed mutagenesis system implemented on the HSV-1(F) genome cloned into a bacterial artificial chromosome. The gEctg, gEctg+gMctg, gDΔct, and gEctg+gDΔct viruses produced viral plaques on African monkey kidney cells (Vero), as well as other cells, that were on average approximately 30 to 50% smaller than those produced by the wild-type virus HSV-1(F). In contrast, the UL20ctgctg virus produced very small plaques containing three to five cells, as reported previously for the ΔUL20 virus lacking the entire UL20 gene. Viral replication kinetics of intracellular and extracellular viruses revealed that all recombinant viruses produced viral titers similar to those produced by the wild-type HSV-1(F) virus intracellularly and extracellularly at late times postinfection, with the exception of the UL20ctgctg and ΔUL20 viruses, which replicated more than two-and-a-half logs less efficiently than HSV-1(F). Electron microscopy confirmed that all viruses, regardless of their different gene mutations, efficiently produced enveloped virions within infected cells, with the exception of the UL20ctgctg and ΔUL20 viruses, which accumulated high levels of unenveloped virions in the cytoplasm. These results show that the carboxyl terminus of gD and the full-length gE, either alone or in a redundant manner, are not essential in cytoplasmic virion envelopment and egress from infected cells. Similarly, gM and gE do not function alone or in a redundant manner in cytoplasmic envelopment and virion egress, confirming previous findings. Copyright © 2009, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Publication Source (Journal or Book title)

Journal of Virology

First Page

6115

Last Page

6124

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