Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoproteins B and K8.1 regulate virion egress and synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor and viral interleukin-6 in BCBL-1 cells
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) viral glycoproteins play important roles in the infectious life cycle and have been implicated in KSHV-associated endothelial cell transformation, angiogenesis, and KS-induced malignancies. KSHV-associated primary effusion lymphomas (PELs) secrete high levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and viral interleukin-6 (vIL-6) in vitro and VEGF, vIL-6, and basic-fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF) in mouse xenografts. KSHV-encoded glycoproteins B (gB) and K8.1 stimulate VEGF secretion, most likely mediated by direct or indirect binding to cell surface receptors, including the gB-specific αVβ3 and α3β1 integrins. In this study, the short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated inhibition of either gB or K8.1 transcription by anti-gB or -K8.1 siRNAs caused a substantial reduction in virion egress and a decrease in both vIL-6 and VEGF production. Similarly, the treatment of BCBL-1 cells with anti-gB or anti-K8.1 antibodies caused a substantial reduction in vIL-6 and VEGF production. Codon-optimized versions of either wild-type gB, mutant gB having the RGD amino acid motif changed to RAA, or K8.1 efficiently rescued virion egress and VEGF and vIL-6 production. These results suggest that the binding of gB via its RGD motif to integrin receptors was not responsible for the observed gB-associated regulation of VEGF and vIL-6 transcription. Conditioned medium collected from BCBL-1 cells transfected with anti-gB and anti-K8.1 siRNAs or treated with anti-gB and anti-K8.1 antibodies exhibited a significantly reduced ability to induce the formation of the capillary network of endothelial cells compared to the ability of medium from mock-infected BCBl-1 cells. Furthermore, medium obtained from BCBL-1 cells expressing smaller amounts of gB and K8.1 produced a substantial reduction in endothelial cell migration in a vertical migration assay compared to that of control medium containing wild-type levels of gB and K8.1. These results suggest a functional linkage between gB/K8.1 synthesis and VEGF/vIL-6 transcriptional regulation via paracrine and/or autocrine signaling pathways. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Journal of Virology
Subramanian, R., Sehgal, I., D'Auvergne, O., & Kousoulas, K. (2010). Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus glycoproteins B and K8.1 regulate virion egress and synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor and viral interleukin-6 in BCBL-1 cells. Journal of Virology, 84 (4), 1704-1714. https://doi.org/10.1128/JVI.01889-09