Retinoic acid induces white adipose tissue browning by increasing adipose vascularity and inducing beige adipogenesis of PDGFRα+ adipose progenitors
© 2017 The Author(s). Formation of beige adipocytes within white adipose tissue enhances energy expenditure, which is a promising strategy to reduce obesity and prevent metabolic symptoms. Vitamin A and its bioactive metabolite, retinoic acid (RA), have regulatory roles in lipid metabolism. Here we report that RA induces white adipose tissue browning via activating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling. RA triggered angiogenesis and elicited de novo generation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor α positive (PDGFRα +) adipose precursor cells via VEGFA/VEGFR2 signaling. In addition, RA promoted beige/brown adipocyte formation from capillary networks in vitro. Using PDGFRα tracking mice, we found that the vascular system acted as an adipogenic repository by containing PDGFRα+ progenitors which differentiated into beige adipocytes under RA or VEGF164 treatments. Conditional knockout of VEGF receptors blocked RA-stimulated white adipose tissue browning. Moreover, the VEGFA and RA activated p38MAPK to enhance the binding of RA receptor to RA response elements of the Prdm16 promoter and upregulated Prdm16 transcription. In conclusion, RA induces white adipose tissue browning by increasing adipose vascularity and promoting beige adipogenesis of PDGFRα+ adipose progenitors.
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Wang, B., Fu, X., Liang, X., Deavila, J., Wang, Z., Zhao, L., Tian, Q., Zhao, J., Gomez, N., Trombetta, S., Zhu, M., & Du, M. (2017). Retinoic acid induces white adipose tissue browning by increasing adipose vascularity and inducing beige adipogenesis of PDGFRα+ adipose progenitors. Cell Discovery, 3 https://doi.org/10.1038/celldisc.2017.36