Excess manganese ingestion in the chick.
Two experiments were conducted with young chicks to investigate effects of excess manganese, (Mn) ingestion and to compare MnCl2 . 4H2O, MnSO4 . H2O, MnO2, and MnCO3 as sources of dietary Mn activity. Each source of Mn was added to a conventional corn-soybean meal diet to supply 3000, 4000, or 5000 mg/kg Mn. High levels of dietary Mn from MnSO4 . H2O and MnCl2 . 4H2O depressed growth slightly; MnO2 and MnCO3 did not affect chick performance. Manganese dioxide contained less Mn activity than MnCO3, MnSO4 . H2O, or MnCl2 . 4H2O as assessed by relative depressions in hemoglobin and hematocrit and by relative increases in bile, liver, and bone Mn concentrations. Neutralization of the chloride ion in MnCl2 . 4H2O with NaHCO3 did not ameliorate the adverse effects of excess, MnCl2 . 4H2O ingestion. Bone and bile Mn concentrations reflected Mn intake better than liver Mn concentration or rate and efficiency of weight gain.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Southern, L., & Baker, D. (1983). Excess manganese ingestion in the chick.. Poultry science, 62 (4), 642-646. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0620642