Additivity of effects from dietary copper and zinc on growth performance and fecal microbiota of pigs after weaning
Four experiments were conducted to determine the interactive effects of pharmacological amounts of Zn from ZnO and Cu from organic (Cu-AA complex; Cu-AA) or inorganic (CuSO 4) sources on growth performance of weanling pigs. The Cu was fed for 4 (Exp. 1) or 6 (Exp. 2, 3, and 4) wk after weaning, and Zn was fed for 4 (Exp. 1) or 2 (Exp. 2, 3, and 4) wk after weaning. Treatments were replicated with 7 pens of 5 or 6 pigs per pen (19.0 ± 1.4 d of age and 5.8 ± 0.4 kg of BW, Exp. 1), 12 pens of 21 pigs per pen (about 21 d of age and 5.3 kg of BW, Exp. 2), 5 pens of 4 pigs per pen (20.3 ± 0.5 d of age and 7.0 ± 0.5 kg of BW, Exp. 3), and 16 pens of 21 pigs per pen (about 21 d of age and 5.7 kg of BW, Exp. 4). In Exp. 1 and 2, Cu-AA (0 vs. 100 mg/kg of Cu) and ZnO (0 vs. 3,000 mg/kg of Zn) were used in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Only Exp. 1 used in-feed antibiotic (165 mg of oxytetracycline and 116 mg of neomycin per kilogram feed), and Exp. 2 was conducted at a commercial farm. In Exp. 3, sources of Cu (none; CuSO 4 at 250 mg/kg of Cu; and Cu-AA at 100 mg/kg of Cu) and ZnO (0 vs. 3,000 mg/ kg of Zn) were used in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement. In Exp. 4, treatments were no additional Cu, CuSO 4 at 315 mg/kg of Cu, or Cu-AA at 100 mg/kg of Cu to a diet supplemented with 3,000 mg/kg of Zn from ZnO and in-feed antibiotic (55 mg of carbadox per kilogram of feed). In Exp. 1 and 2, both Zn and Cu-AA improved (P < 0.001 to P = 0.03) ADG and ADFI. No interactions were observed, except in wk 1 of Exp. 2, where Zn increased the G:F only in the absence of Cu-AA (Cu-AA × Zn, P = 0.04). A naturally occurring colibacillosis diarrhea outbreak occurred during this experiment. The ZnO addition reduced (P < 0.001) the number of pigs removed and pig-days on antibiotic therapy. In Exp 3, ADFI in wk 2 was improved by Zn and Cu (P < 0.001 and P = 0.09, respectively) with no interactions. In wk 1, G:F was reduced by ZnO only in the absence of Cu (Cu × Zn, P = 0.03). Feeding Zn decreased fecal microbiota diversity in the presence of CuSO 4 but increased it in the presence of Cu-AA (Cu source × Zn, P = 0.06). In Exp. 4, Cu supplementation improved the overall ADG (P = 0.002) and G:F (P < 0.001). The CuSO 4 effect on G:F was greater (P < 0.001) than the Cu-AA effect. Our results indicate that pharmacological amounts of ZnO and Cu (Cu-AA or CuSO 4) are additive in promoting growth of pigs after weaning. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Journal of Animal Science
Pérez, V., Waguespack, A., Bidner, T., Southern, L., Fakler, T., Ward, T., Steidinger, M., & Pettigrew, J. (2011). Additivity of effects from dietary copper and zinc on growth performance and fecal microbiota of pigs after weaning. Journal of Animal Science, 89 (2), 414-425. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2010-2839