Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur in llamas and alpacas
Pharmacokinetic studies of antibiotics in South American camelids are uncommon, therefore drugs are often administered to llamas and alpacas based on dosages established in other domestic species. The disposition of ceftiofur sodium was studied in llamas following intramuscular administration and in alpacas following intravenous and intramuscular administration. Eleven adult llamas were given ceftiofur sodium by intramuscular injection. Each animal received either a standard dose of 2.2 mg/kg or an allometrically scaled dose ranging from 2.62 to 2.99 mg/kg in a crossover design. Ten adult alpacas were given ceftiofur sodium by intravenous and intramuscular injections. Each animal received a standard dosage of 1 mg/kg or an allometrically scaled dose ranging from 1.27 to 1.44 mg/kg i.v., and 1.31-1.51 mg/kg i.m. Blood samples were collected at 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, 36, 48, and 72 h after administration of the ceftiofur. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ceftiofur in llamas and alpacas were similar following i.m. dosing at both dose levels. The only differences noted were in the total AUC between dose levels, but the AUC/dose values were not different. A sequence effect was noted in the alpaca data, which resulted in lower AUCs for the second dose when the i.v. dose was given first, and with higher AUCs for the second dose when the i.m. dose was given first. Overall, ceftiofur pharmacokinetics in llamas and alpacas are similar, and also very similar to reported parameters for sheep and goats.
Publication Source (Journal or Book title)
Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
Drew, M., Johnson, L., Pugh, D., Navarre, C., Taylor, I., & Craigmill, A. (2004). Pharmacokinetics of ceftiofur in llamas and alpacas. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 27 (1), 13-20. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.0140-7783.2003.00542.x