Master of Science in Electrical Engineering (MSEE)
Electrical and Computer Engineering
The problem being tackled here relates to the problem of target tracking in wireless sensor networks. It is a specific problem in localization. Localization primarily refers to the detection of spatial coordinates of a node or an object. Target tracking deals with finding spatial coordinates of a moving object and being able to track its movements. In the tracking scheme illustrated, sensors are deployed in a triangular fashion in a hexagonal mesh such that the hexagon is divided into a number of equilateral triangles. The technique used for detection is the trilateration technique in which intersection of three circles is used to determine the object location. While the object is being tracked by three sensors, distance to it from a fourth sensor is also being calculated simultaneously. The difference is that closest three sensors detect at a frequency of one second while the fourth sensor detects the object location at twice the frequency. Using the distance information from the fourth sensor and a simple mathematical technique, location of object is predicted for every half second as well. The key thing to note is that the forth sensor node is not used for detection but only for estimation of the object at half second intervals and hence does not utilize much power. Using this technique, tracking capability of the system is increased. The scheme proposed can theoretically detect objects moving at speeds of up to 33 m/s unlike the paper  on which it is based which can detect objects moving only up to speeds of 5 m/s. While the earlier system  has been demonstrated with four sensors as well, but for that the arrangement of sensor nodes is a square. The technique demonstrated does not involve a change in the arrangement and utilizes the hexagonal mesh arrangement. Some other scenarios have been tackled such as when displacement of the object is zero at the end of one second. Its movement is predicted during that time interval. Also, incase an object moves in a circle, such motions are also tracked.
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Malik, Tarun Anand, "Target tracking in wireless sensor networks" (2005). LSU Master's Theses. 278.
Subhash C. Kak