Identifier

etd-04072016-174516

Degree

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

Department

School of Nutrition and Food Sciences

Document Type

Dissertation

Abstract

Dietary bioactive compounds benefit health while some might induce pathological processes. Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease. Braak and Hawkes hypothesized that the gastrointestinal tract may be a potential site of neuronal invasion by an “unknown pathogen” leading to some Parkinsonism. Neurotoxin botulinum or ricin can trans-synaptically transport in nervous system. Our hypothesis 1: dietary plant lectins might be responsible for the “unknown pathogen” causing PD. Pomegranate juice (PJ) have antioxidant and anti-obesity effects. Our hypothesis 2: PJ increases lifespan in C. elegans and reduces fat storage. Study 1: Post-feeding rhodamine or TRITC tagged dietary lectins was tracked from gut to dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in C. elegans BZ555 (egIs1[Pdat-1::GFP]) that has Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) gene fused to a dopamine transport protein gene labeling DAergic neurons. Although this observation was tested with specific inhibiting sugars (SIS), supplemented with Escherichia coli, the high concentrations of monosaccharides necessary may have their own side effects. Results showed that Amaranthus caudatus agglutinin, Euonymus europaeus agglutinin and Arachis hypogaea agglutinin co- localized with DAergic neurons. Lectins affected the number, size or intensity of DAergic neurons, reduced the mobility and affected the lifespan of C. elegans to different extents, with the SIS either augmenting or mitigating the effects. Our observations are a tantalizing possible explanation for why dietary plants have been linked to a risk of developing PD. Study 2: Lifespan of C. elegans was increased by PJ treatment in wild type (N2, 56%) and daf-16 mutant (daf-16(mgDf50)I) (GR1307, 18%), by POMx in N2 (28%) and in GR1307 (10%), or by EA (11%). PJ reduced intestinal fat deposition (IFD) in N2 (-68%) or in GR1307 (-33%). The IFD was increased by POMx in N2 (137%) and in GR1307 (26%), by EA in N2 (66%) and in GR1307 (74%), or by UA in N2 (57%) and in GR1307 (43%). Both lectins and PJ are bioactive compounds, playing important roles in life. These studies may provide useful information for an alternative etiology of PD and offer solutions of using PJ to delay aging and prevent obesity in humans.

Date

2016

Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Secure the entire work for patent and/or proprietary purposes for a period of one year. Student has submitted appropriate documentation which states: During this period the copyright owner also agrees not to exercise her/his ownership rights, including public use in works, without prior authorization from LSU. At the end of the one year period, either we or LSU may request an automatic extension for one additional year. At the end of the one year secure period (or its extension, if such is requested), the work will be released for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Zheng, Jolene

Included in

Life Sciences Commons

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