Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)



Document Type



The purpose of this dissertation was to integrate the expectancy-value model of achievement choice and self-efficacy theory among middle school students, with the goal of better understanding students’ motivational beliefs and the factors that influence these beliefs. Three quantitative studies were conducted to address this purpose. In study 1, the expectancy-value model constructs (expectancy-related beliefs and subjective task values) and self-efficacy theory constructs (self-efficacy and outcome expectancy) were measured in a sample of 225 students and were used to predict students’ in-class activity levels during a 2-week follow-up. Results of path analyses yielded that the hypothesized model fit the data well. Specially, self-efficacy had the greatest effect on activity levels followed by subjective task values. Expectancy-related beliefs and outcome expectancy indirectly predicted activity levels via self-efficacy. The overall variances in self-efficacy and in-class activity levels explained by the model were 54% and 23%, respectively. Study 2 investigated how students’ motivation toward physical education changed over the course of one school year among 206 students, and how grade and gender affected motivation. The results highlight that, self-efficacy and subjective task values were significant predictors of students’ intention for future participation in physical education across cohorts. This longitudinal study revealed a consistent decline in the mean levels of the study variables. However, there were no gender differences for any of the study variables. Study 3 examined the effects of two different learning contents (soccer and fitness) on students’ motivational beliefs (self-efficacy, subjective task values, and outcome expectancy) and their in-class activity levels. The results suggest that students reported higher scores in self-efficacy and outcome expectancy toward fitness than they did toward soccer. Nevertheless, students exhibited significantly higher in-class activity levels in the soccer class than they did in the fitness stations class. The results were interpreted from the perspectives of expectancy-value model and self-efficacy theory, and the educational implications were provided for physical education teachers and practitioners.



Document Availability at the Time of Submission

Release the entire work immediately for access worldwide.

Committee Chair

Amelia Lee

Included in

Kinesiology Commons