Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)
School of Nutrition and Food Sciences
Chemical characterization of pulses allows for varying rates of water absorption, least gelation capacity, and retrogradation depending on species. Nutritionally, pulses are good sources of protein while being low in fat. Pulses deliver a readily bioavailable food form of several key minerals. Additionally, they deliver fiber. The insoluble fiber components are both natural and formed resistant starch in addition to the oligosaccharide content. Therefore, pulses can serve both a nutritional and functional role when used as a value-added ingredient. Meat patties were produced from beef and 23 different pulses at 35%, 42.5%, and 50% ratios. Each patty was tested for weight loss, diameter loss, color, and texture. The 50:50 ratio samples had the least amount of cook loss but the greatest visible bean fraction. All fractions improved nutritional profile. Navy, Light Red Kidney (LRB), and Small Red Beans were found to be most beneficial/acceptable as partial meat substitutes. The 42.5% patties were tested using two consumer focus groups. The recommendations from the focus group was used in a consumer study for both liking and difference. Panelists found significant differences for overall liking; however, panelists failed to determine difference Therefore, LRB modified meat patty (MMP) could be implemented at the USDA National School Lunch Program. The health impact of the MMP verses a control diet (CD) was tested using Syrian hamsters. The hamsters were fed for four weeks with weekly measurements of weight gain. After necropsy, organ weights and blood lipid levels were measured. All non-CD diet hamsters resulted in higher finished body weights. Hamsters on LRB or MMP diets had reduced LDL and VLDL averages of 22.7 and 8.1 mg/dL respectively compared to the CD. Additionally, average HDL:LDL ratios for the MMP and LRB diets increased from 1.47:1 for the CD to 1.9:1 and 2.2:1 respectively. Hamsters on CD and LRB diets had lower liver weights and reduced epididymal adipose weight compared to diets containing MMP or GB. The results suggest partial substitution of LRB in GB can have significant impact on cholesterol levels and visceral fat deposition due to synergism between sat fat and cholesterol in the diet.
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Holliday, Darryl, "Chemistry and Application of Pulses as Value-Added Ingredients in Processed Foods" (2014). LSU Doctoral Dissertations. 1595.